What is Constitution of India?
The Constitution of India(Bhartiya Samvidhana) is the Supreme law of India.
It is called soul of nation also. The document lays down the framework of fundamental Rights & Duties of Citizens and non Citizens. It lays out about Directive Principles of the States, Structure, Procedures, Powers, and Duties of Government institutions and It is the longest written constitution on earth.
The chairman of the drafting committee,B.R. Ambedkar is widely considered to be its chief architec.
It presents constitutional supremacy not parliament supremecy because it was created by constituent assembly rather than a parliament and It was adopted by its people with a declaration given in its preamble. So Parliament cannot override the constitution.
What is Constitutional Law?
‘Constitutional Law means the rule which regulates the structure of the principal organs of the Government and their relationship to one another. It determines their principal functions also’.(1)
Why do A State need of Constitution?
A State cann’t govern itself on an adhoc basis. So There must be a predictable body of norms and rules. So that It can regulate its basic institution . Governmental organs must draw their power and functions by the norms and rules. The objective of having a constitution is to promote harmony throughout the nation.
The Constitution of India was adopted by the constituent assembly of India on 26th November 1949. It became effective on 26th January 1950. The constitution replaced The Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document.The dominion of India became the Republic of India. (dominion was a self-governing autonomous state within the British Empire.) Its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395 to ensure constitutional autochthony. (autochthony is the process of asserting constitutional nationalism from an external legal or political power. ) So India celebrates on 26 January as a Republic Day.
There are 104 amendments in the Constitution of India.
(104th amendment took place on 25th January 2020 and the purposr of the amendment is to extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies also. ) that have been made in the Indian constitution so far.
It had 395 articles ,22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of commencement but Now there are 448 articles , 25 parts and 12 schedules.
(1) Dr. J. N. Pandey, ‘Constitutional Law of India’Central Law Agency