Cyber Laws & Cyber Forensic for deliver to justice in India

Cyber Laws & Cyber Forensic

A Study on Cyber Laws & Cyber Forensic for deliver to justice in India

Published in the Book “Latest Trends in Cyber Laws & Cyber Crimes”
,
ISBN: 978-81-951489-2-9, by Adhrit Foundation,Lucknow

Introduction: Today we are seeing that time has changed. The country is also developing with the passage of time, as the society continues to develop so too are the crimes increasing and their forms also changed. According to them, new laws are being made for their prevention. Today, the era of the 21st century is the era of information revolution. Computers and the Internet has become an essential item of today’s generation. Computers and Internet has become an essential item in every government, non-government department, schools, colleges, universities, companies, private companies, even home everywhere. There is a net spread around it. Today, sitting at home, information of any place can be obtained by clicking the mouse. The whole world is connected through the Internet. We can easily answer every question through the Internet. In this way, everyone is benefiting from it today. Today the distance is over and it is being used vigorously in all the areas but today we are seeing that as much as the computer has benefited the country, it is suffering as much loss. Today the number of cybercrimes is very high. Cybercrimes are those which are committed through computer and internet. The number of cybercrimes is increasing rapidly by cyber criminals like identity theft, hacking, spam, financial fraud, blackmail, Child pornography, forgery and money laundering etc.Today the data of cybercrimes are shocking. Due to easy access to computers, crimes can be easily done at home. In the absence of evidence, criminals roam freely and are not caught quickly. Many of these criminals are such that they have a prestigious or high position in the society, due to which they are not even able to come under suspicion. Investigators are needed to catch cyber criminals who take it as a challenge and then cybercrimes can be detected. Otherwise these criminals are not able to get caught early. Most of the criminals are educated and are experts in computers. These crimes are easily committed by high class people sitting at home leading a life of luxury. In this way they make themselves rich and rich by making the lives of others hellish. Most of the criminals are reputed people in high-class society; they keep receiving respect from others until their necks fall under the clutches of the law. Although many efforts have been made to curb cybercrimes and many laws have also come, these crimes are increasing at a rapid pace. It is becoming increasingly difficult to catch criminals at the speed with which crimes are increasing, so it is necessary that today everyone in the society should understand his responsibility and be aware of cybercrimes. Cyber ​​forensics is also making its best contribution in this direction, yet maximum awareness is required to get favourable benefits. Even today, there are many people who become victims of cybercrime, but are reluctant to take the help of cyber forensics in this regard, so there is a need to spread more awareness so that cybercrimes can be completely prevented.

Research Methodology: – This article adopts Doctrinal and analytical research methods and conducts research by analysing relevant content available in articles, books, journals and websites. This article uses the Blue book citation method.

Significance of the Study

This research work will help Lawmaker, educators, lawyers and students understand the trends, examples, vulnerabilities, rules and regulations of Cyber forensics and cyber security in India.  This work will also help people to understand the new concept of Cyber forensics and too aware about Cyber Crimes.

Object: –      To bring awareness about cybercrime in society.

To make society cybercrime free.

To study about cyber forensic & its functions.

To study about cyber laws and its implication.

Cyber Crime & Cyber Space

 According to Pavan Duggal, “Cyber-crime refers to all the activities done with criminal intent in cyberspace or using the medium of internet. These could be either the criminal cases activities in the conventional sense or activities, newly evolved with the growth of the new medium. Any activity, which basically offends human sensibilities, can be included in the ambit of cybercrime.”[1]

 According to UNO expert recommendations, “the term “cybercrimes” covers any crime committed by using computer systems or networks, within their frameworks or against them. Theoretically, it embraces any crime that can be committed in the electronic environment. In other words, crimes committed by using e-computers against information processed and applied in the internet can be referred to cybercrime.”[2]

According to Dr. Debarati Halder and Dr. K. Jaishankar, “cybercrimes are “Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS).”[3]

According to the European Cybercrime Treaty Council – “Cybercrime is a crime that is criminal activity against data and copyright.”[4]

 According to computer scientist Xavier Geuze – “Cybercrime is a crime through computers and the Internet, including forgery, unauthorized penetration, child pornography and cyber stalking.”[5]

Cyber Space: –Cyberspace is the dynamic and virtual space that such networks of machine-clones create. In other words, cyberspace is the web of consumer electronics, computers, and communications network which interconnect the world.”[6]

Features of Cyber Laws;

Cybercrimes are silent in nature, intangible, global, high technical, faceless, no crime scene, easy access, high potential and huge influence.

Terrible Situation in India of cybercrime in lockdown period of 2019“Cybercrime in India has surged amidst the country’s unprecedented coronavirus lockdown. As COVID-19 cases in the country continue to climb, New Delhi has sought to aggressively to contain the spread of the deadly disease by essentially shutting down the world’s second most populated nation. The extreme measures have been accompanied by a dramatic rise in cybercrimes across the country. Attacks have soared 86% in the four weeks roughly between March and April, according to a recent Reuters report quoting Indian Home Ministry officials and detailing “fake offers that Reliance Industries telecom arm Jio and streaming service Netflix Inc were offering discounted services” during the lockdown. A closer examination in the jump in cybercrime reveals that both private and state-sponsored cyber criminals have proven effective at exploiting the on-going crisis.” [7]

 Kinds of Some Cyber Crimes: –

 Hacking – “In simple words, hacking is an act committed by an intruder by accessing your computer system without your permission. Hackers (the people doing the ‘hacking’) are basically computer programmers, who have an advanced understanding of computers and commonly misuse this knowledge for devious reasons. They’re usually technology buffs who have expert-level skills in one particular software program or language. As for motives, there could be several, but the most common are pretty simple and can be explained by a human tendency such as greed, fame, power, etc. Some people do it purely to show-off their expertise – ranging from relatively harmless activities such as modifying software (and even hardware) to carry out tasks that are outside the creator’s intent, others just want to cause destruction .Greed and sometimes voyeuristic tendencies may cause a hacker to break into systems to steal personal banking information, a corporation’s financial data, etc. They also try and modify systems so that they can execute tasks at their whims. Hackers displaying such destructive conduct are also called “Crackers” at times. They are also called “Black Hat” hackers on the other hand.”[8]

Virus /worm attack: – “virus is a program that attaches itself to a computer or a file and then circulates itself to other files and to other computers on a network.  They usually affect the data on a computer either by altering or deleting it worms; unlike viruses do not need the host to attach themselves to. They merely make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available space on a computer’s memory.

 Cybersquatting: -cybersquatting is the practice, by which a person or legal entity books up the trademark, business name, or service mark of another entity as his own domain name. It is for the purpose of holding on to it, and thereafter selling the same domain name to the other person for valuable premium and consideration. Cyber squatters book domain names of important brands in the hope of earning Millions.”[9]

Cyber fraud: – “Manipulation, pyramid schemes, fraudulent business opportunities, offshore scams, are all types of Cyber fraud. The internet has made these all the easier with fraudulent schemes.”[10]

Credit card fraud- “Millions of dollars are lost annually by consumers who have credit card and calling card numbers stolen from online databases. Bulletin boards and other online services are frequent targets for hackers who want to access large databases of credit card information.”[11] 

Spamming: – “Spam is the practice of sending unsolicited emails to others, Spam causes immense nuisance, as a recipient without his/her request or consent, becomes the receiving point of unwarranted, commercial and other nonsensical emails. 

Cyber venting: – cyber venting involves setting up a website to anonymously air his or her grouses in the cyberspace. A disgruntled employee, and for that matter any person, who wants to air his grouse against his boss or any other person, gives the details of every skeleton in the latter’s cupboard.”[12]

Cyber money laundering: – “money laundering is an enormous subject in its own right but the contribution made by online accounts and a Credit transfer is increasing all the time. transfers online have the great advantage of not involving personal cheques or contacts of any kind and a computer is much less likely to be suspicious than a human being.”[13]

Cyber Defamation: – ‘When a person publishes defamatory matter about someone on a website or sends e-mails containing defamatory information to all of that person’s friends, it is termed as cyber defamation.

Email Spoofing: – Email spoofing refers to email that appears to originate from one source but actually has been sent from another source. Email spoofing can also cause monetary damage.’[14]

Phishing: – “Phishing is the act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers that the legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the user’s information. By spamming large groups of people, the phisher counted on the e-mail being read by a percentage of people who actually had listed credit card numbers with legitimately.”[15]

Denial-of-Service attack “A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is an explicit attempt by attackers to deny service to intended users of that service. It involves flooding a computer resource with more requests than it can handle consuming its available bandwidth which results in server overload. This causes the resource (e.g. a web server) to crash or slow down significantly so that no one can access it. Using this technique, the attacker can render a web site inoperable by sending massive amounts of traffic to the targeted site. A site may temporarily malfunction or crash completely, in any case resulting in inability of the system to communicate adequately. DoS attacks violate the acceptable use policies of virtually all internet service providers. Another variation to a denial-of-service attack is known as a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack wherein a number of geographically widespread perpetrators flood the network traffic. Denial-of-Service attacks typically target high profile web site servers belonging to banks and credit card payment gateways. Websites of companies such as Amazon, CNN, Yahoo, Twitter and eBay! are not spared either.”[16]

Child pornography: – “This involves the use of electronic device and services to create, distribute or access materials that sexually exploit minor childrens. For eg., Recording heinous act done with child on mobile device and distributing on porn site.”[17]

What is Cyber Law:The word cyber means communication and law means law. Therefore, computer law refers to the law relating to communication, which is the exchange of information in cyberspace. Cyber law is the law of computers, computer networks, data software, software, hard drive, other data storage devices, websites, the Internet, email, ATMs, communication capabilities (such as cell phones, 3G phones), digital accessories, etc. Cyber Law is the study of topics such as, information exchange, electronic records, electronic and digital signatures, cybercrime, intellectual property, data protection and personality etc.

Cyber Laws in India:The IT Act, 2000 has been passed in India for effective control over cybercrimes, which has been amended in 2008 & 2009

Sec.43: – “Penalty and compensation] for damage to computer, computer system, etc.”[18]

Sec.65: – “Tampering with computer source documents. –

Sec 66: – Computer related offences. –

Sec 66A: – Punishment for sending offensive messages through communication service, etc.–

Sec 66B: – Punishment for dishonestly receiving stolen computer resource or communication device etc. –

Sec 66C: – Punishment for identity theft. –

Sec 66D: – Punishment for cheating by personation by using computer resource. –

Sec 66E: – Punishment for violation of privacy. –

Sec 66F: – Punishment for cyber terrorism.”[19]

Sec 67: – “Punishment for publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form. –

Sec 67A: – Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act, etc., in electronic form.

Sec 67B: – Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicting children in sexually explicit act, etc., in electronic form. –

Sec 67C: – Preservation and retention of information by intermediaries. –

Sec 69: – “Power to issue directions for interception or monitoring or decryption of any information through any computer resource.

Sec 69A: – Power to issue directions for blocking for public access of any information through any computer resource. –

Sec 69B: – Power to authorise to monitor and collect traffic data or information through any computer resource for cyber security.”[20]

Sec 71: – “Penalty for misrepresentation. –

Sec 72: – Penalty for Breach of confidentiality and privacy. –

Sec 72A: – Punishment for disclosure of information in breach of lawful contract. –

Sec 74: – Publication for fraudulent purpose. –

Sec 78: – Power to investigate offences. –

Sec 80: – Power of police officer and other officers to enter, search, etc.–

Sec 84B: – Punishment for abetment of offences. –

Sec 84C: – Punishment for attempt to commit offences. –

Sec 85: – Offences by companies.”[21]

Cyber-crimes in which Indian Penal Code apply: –

Sec. 294: – “Obscene acts and songs. —

Sec. 354: – Assault of criminal force to woman with intent to outrage her modesty. —

Sec. 509: –Word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman. —

Sec. 503: – Criminal intimidation. —

Sec. 499: – Defamation. —

Sec. 463: – Forgery. —

Sec. 420: – Cheating and dishonestly inducing delivery of property. —

Sec. 383: –Extortion.”[22]

Other Cyber laws in India

The TORT Act applies and can provide remedies for unauthorized use of computers and the Internet.

There are various other laws relating to cybercrime in India. They are as following.

1. Common Law (governed by general principles of law)

2. The Bankers’ Book Evidence Act, 1891

3. The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934

4. The Information Technology (Amendment) Act, 2008 and 2009

5. The Information Technology (Removal of difficulties) Order, 2002

6. The Information Technology (Certifying Authorities) Rules, 2000

7. The Information Technology (Certifying Authorities) Regulations, 2001

8. The Information Technology (Securities Procedure) Rules, 2004

9. Various laws relating to IPRs.

10. Online Sale of Drugs Section 15 to 29 NDPS Act

11. Online Sale of Arms Section 5 to 25 Arms Act

Non-Profit Organisations Working on Cyber Safety

“Information Sharing and Analysis Centre (ISAC), New Delhi

End Now Foundation, Hyderabad.

Incognito Forensic Foundation, Bangalore, Chennai Filter net Foundation,

Uttar Pradesh, Varanasi”[23]

Cyber Forensic

“Cyber forensic’ is another term associated with computer crime that deals with discovery, analysis and reconstruction of evidence from computer systems, networks, media and peripherals, to enable the investigators to solve the crime.”[24]

 “Computer forensics or cyber forensics can be defined as “the collection and analysis of data from computer systems, networks, communication streams (wireless) and storage media in a manner that is admissible in a court of law”[25]

“Traditionally Cyber forensics involves the:

 – preservation,

– collection,

– validation,

 – identification,

– analysis,

  –interpretation,

– documentation and

– Presentation Of computer evidence stored on a computer. The process of collecting, preserving, analyzing, interpreting data and information from the computer storage by guaranteeing its accuracy and reliability is termed as cyber forensic. “Forensics means application of science to a legal process thus cyber forensic briefly means, bringing admissible digital evidence before the court.”[26]

“Forensics is the application of science to the legal process.” Jim Christy.

Tools used in cyber forensic. Some of such tools are as follows:

 • “X-Ways Win Hex: It is used as a low-level data processing, for inspecting files, for recovering digital camera card, for recovering the original file from the corrupt files systems, etc. This is a powerful tool used for gathering digital evidence.

 • First On Scene: FOS is a visual basic script code. It also works with other tools such as PSTools, LogonSessions, FPort, NTLast, PromiscDetect, FileHasher, etc. in order to create an evidence log report. This can be further analysed by forensic experts for extracting important information.

 • Rifiuti: Rifiuti is a tool which helps in finding the last details of a system’s recycle bin. It helps in collecting all the deleted and undeleted files

 • Pasco: Pasco is a Latin word meaning “browse”. Pasco helps in the analysis of the contents of what all browsing has been done from ones computer. In short it is particularly useful in gathering records of internet activities carried out from a targeted computer.

 • Galleta / Cookie: Galleta means “cookie”. Galleta helps in examining the contents of cookie files on a computer. Cookie files are temporary internet files used by websites for maintaining their indigenous logs for purposes like tracking and etc.

 • Forensic Acquisition Utilities (FAU): It is a set of forensic tools such as checker; file wiper, etc. used for assorting research and investigation.

• NMap: It is a port scanner tool that helps find open ports on a remote machine. NMap has an ability to evade source machine identity and works without causing any Intrusion Detection System (IDS) alarms to go off. It is mainly associated with the network security system.

• Ethereal: Ethereal is another network security tool which is a network packet sniffer. it sniffs data packets over the network and provides incoming – outgoing data sent over the network, to the investigator. However, cannot be used in cases where strong encryption algorithms are placed at the source and destination computers

 • BinText: BinText is useful to browse through gathered evidence files such as that of log files generated by other forensic tools. It is used for pattern matching and filtering these log files.

 • PyFlag Tools : PyFlag are a couple of tools used for log analysis and can be a very effective tool for investigators.

 • Encrypted disk detector : EDD is a command-line tool that quickly checks the local physical drives on a system for encrypted volumes. The decision can then be made to investigate further and determine whether a live acquisition needs to be made in order to secure and preserve the evidence that would otherwise be lost if the plug was pulled.

• MemGator: Memgator is a memory file interrogation tool that automates the extraction of data from a memory file and compiles a report for the investigator. Data relating to memory details, processes, network connections, malware detection, and passwords and encryption keys can be extracted.”[27]

Challenges Faced by Cyber Forensics

“Some of the limitations are as follows:

  • Some facilities which are there within the browsers for the purpose of saving the WWW pages to disk are not perfect because it may save the texts but not the related images
  • There might be difference between what is there on the screen which can be seen and what is saved on the disk
  • The method which has been used to save a particular file might not carry individual labeling regarding when and where it was obtained. Such files can be easily forged or modified
  • Most times it becomes difficult for the system to locate the page which was acquired at last. If the entire series is examined it becomes even difficult to point which one was later and which was earlier.
  • Many ISPs use proxy servers in order to speed up their delivery of pages which are popular on web. Hence, the user might not be sure of what he has received from that particular website by his ISP Common mistakes like altering of the date and time stamps, killing of rouge processes, patching system before investigation etc lead to loose of data from the disk resulting in crashing of the e-files and evidences stored on the computer.” [28]

Crime Investigation in Cyber Crimes:“In cybercrime Location, collection, preservation and dispatch of the evidence to the forensic expert is practical police work (ppw), carried out by law enforcement Agencies or by private investigators. The success or failure of the investigations and trials depends upon these basic processes. They generally follow the general crime investigative pattern, yet because of high complexity of the technology and miniature nature of the devices it needs certain special treatment and extra care in handling of the evidence to save the evidence from alteration deletion, destruction, contamination, mutilation or even from substitution.  It is essential that the investigating officer understands the basic principles and follow a set protocol to get the maximum and correct information to ensure successful investigations.”[29]

Case Law:

Conflict between the IPC and the IT Act: Case Law

“In the case of Sharat Babu Digumarti v. Government of NCT of Delhi the conflict between provisions of the IPC and the IT Act came to the fore. In this case, on November 27, 2004, an obscene video had been listed for sale on baazee.com (“Bazee”). The listing was intentionally made under the category ‘Books and Magazines’ and sub-category ‘ebooks’ in order to avoid its detection by the filters installed by Baazee. A few copies were sold before the listing was deactivated and later Delhi police’s crime branch charge-sheeted Avinash Bajaj, Bazee’s managing director and Sharat Digumarti, Bazee’s manager. The company Bazee was not arraigned as an accused and this helped Avinash Bajaj get off the hook since it was held that, vicarious liability could not be fastened on Avinash Bajaj under either section 292 of the IPC or section 67 of the IT Act when Avinash’s employer Bazee itself was not an accused. Later changes under section 67 of the IT Act and section 294 of IPC against Sharat Digumarti were also dropped, but the charges under section 292 of the IPC were retained. The Supreme Court then considered if, after the charges under section 67 of the IT Act was dropped; a charge under section 292 of the IPC could be sustained. The Supreme Court quashed the proceedings against Sarat Digumarti and ruled that if an offence involves an electronic record, the IT Act alone would apply since such was the legislative intent. It is a settled principle of interpretation that special laws would prevail over general laws and latter laws would prevail over prior legislation. Further, section 81 of the IT Act states that the provisions of the IT Act shall have effect notwithstanding anything inconsistent therewith”[30]

“Gagan Harsh Sharma v. The State of Maharashtra, certain individuals were accused of theft of data and software from their employer and charged under sections 408 and 420 of the IPC and also under sections 43, 65 and 66 of the IT Act. All of these sections, other than section 408 of the IPC, have been discussed above. Section 408 of the IPC deals with criminal breach of trust by clerk or servant and states that “whoever, being a clerk or servant or employed as a clerk or servant, and being in any manner entrusted in such capacity with property, or with any dominion over property, commits criminal breach of trust in respect of that property, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine”. Offences under sections 408 and 420 of the IPC are non-bailable and cannot be compounded other than with the permission of the court. Offences under sections 43, 65 and 66 of the IT Act are bailable and compoundable. Therefore, the petitioners pleaded that the charges against them under the IPC be dropped and the charges against them under the IT Act be investigated and pursued. It was further argued that if the Supreme Court’s ruling in Sharat Babu Digumarti were to be followed, the petitioners could only be charged under the IT Act and not under the IPC, for offences arising out of the same actions. The Bombay High Court upheld the contentions of the petitioners and ruled that the charges against them under the IPC be dropped.”[31]

The reason behind the insertion of section 66A according to the Amendment Bill was: –

“Shreya Singhal vs. Union of India. The apex court had been called upon to examine the constitutional validity of Section 66A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 and its various parameters from the perspective of the various principles enshrined in the Indian Constitution. In an unprecedented judgement it declared that the said section was unconstitutional, marking the day as a time of jubilation for free speech activists. However, the said judgment was also a landmark as it upheld the power of interception under Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, 2000 as enshrined under the law. The Supreme Court also upheld Section 79 of the Act, pertaining to intermediary liability, but with a caveat: intermediaries in India will have to act only on court order or on order of governmental agency. The said judgment once again reiterated the principle that any provision of law, concerning the real as well as virtual world, will have to ensure compliance with the Indian Constitution. This was the year in which the Supreme Court delivered its landmark judgment in the case of Shreya Singhal vs. Union of India.”[32]

Conclusion: – After analyzing all the above data, it is concluded that along with the development of techniques in the country, crimes like cybercrime are also increasing. The increasing data of cybercrime are showing the horrific picture in India. Cyber ​​laws have been introduced for and amended from time to time as per the requirement. Cyber ​​Crimes being of technical nature, Cyber ​​Forensics has also been set up for Criminal Investigation of Cybercrime. Cyber ​​Forensics has been established in Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi in the country where a team of computer experts are present. Yet today, cybercrime has emerged as a challenge. Many times, the Innocent person also falls victim to cyber law, Victim is not able to get justice on time because of complex judicial process, due to which people have lost faith in the law.  Cyber ​​forensics is facing a number of warnings to prevent cybercrime. So, Location, collection, preservation and dispatch of the evidence from crime scene to the forensic expert should be done by experts in technique. There is a need for international protocol because of global crime. As well as changes in cyber laws and cyber forensics to tackle cybercrime is still needed. Today there is a need to spread awareness about how cyber Crime can be avoided by adopting protective measures and what precautions need to be taken immediately after being a victim of cybercrime. The speed at which crimes are increasing, criminal investigation and justice process also should do in the same pace. There is also need to establish more cyber forensic and to maintain tools & equipment in forensic to combat cybercrimes.


[1] Dr. Amita Verma, Cyber Crimes in India 66, Central Law Publications Allahabad (2017)

s Dr. Amita Verma, Cyber Crimes in India 66(Central Law Publications Allahabad 2017)

[3] Jonathan clough, Principles of Cybercrime 12 (Cambridge publication, 2ndedn 1998)

[4] Arun Kumar Pathak, Cyber Crimes and cyber /Laws, 42 (Pustak sadan prakashan ,3rdedn2017)

[5] Ibid

[6] Cyber Space  available at https://www.toppr.com/guides/business-laws-cs/cyber-laws/introduction-to-cyberspace/ (Last visited on Sept 3, 2020)

[7] Ronak D. Desai, ‘Cybercrime In India Surges Amidst Coronavirus Lockdown’(may 14, 2020) available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/ronakdesa (last visited on Sept,2, 2020)

[8] Hacking available at https://www.digit.in/technology-guides/fasttrack-to-cyber-crime/the-12-types-of-cyber-crime.html (Last visited on August 21, 2020)

[9] Dr. Amita Verma, Cyber Crimes in India, 78 (Central Law Publications Allahabad 1st edn 2017)

[10] Dr. Amita Verma, Cyber Crimes in India, 78 (Central Law Publications Allahabad 1st edn. 2017)

[11]Ibid

[12] Ibid

[13] Ibid

[14]Types of Crime available at  http://www.helplinelaw.com/ (Last visited on Sept.3, 2020)

[15]Phising available at  http://www.helplinelaw.com/ (Last visited on Sept. 3,2020)

[16]Denial-of-Service attack available at https://www.digit.in/technology( Last visited on Sept 3, 2020-)

[17] Child pornography available at https://www.educba.com  (Last vissited on Sept 4,2020

[18] The Information Technology Act, 2000 art. 43

[19] The Information Technology Act, 2000 art.65, 66, 66A, 66B, 66C,66D,66E,66F

[20] Ibid art, 67, 67A, 67B, 67C, 69, 69A, 69B,

[21] Ibid art. 71, 72, 72A, 74, 78, 80, 84B, 84C, 85

[22] Indian Penal Code 1860, ss 294,354,509, 503, 499,463, 420, 383

[23] Non-Profit Organisations Working on Cyber Safety available https://en.wikipedia.org/(Last visited on Sept, 3 2020)

[24] B.S.Nabar, Forensic Science in Crime Investigation p.377, (Asia Law House Hyderabad 3rd edn. 2002)

[25] Cyber Forensic available at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ (Last visited on Sept 3, 2020)

[26]Cyber Forensic available at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/Last visited on Sept 3, 2020

[27] Tools used in cyber forensic available at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/(Last visited on Sept 2, 2020

[28] Challenges Faced by Cyber Forensics https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/(Last visited on Sept 2, 2020)

[29] B. R. Sharma, Forensic Science in Criminal Investigations & Trials,1488 (Universal Law Publishing Co. New Delhi India 3rd edn. 2014) 

[30] Sharat Babu Digumarti v. Government of NCT of Delhi in 2019 CriLJ 1398 available at  https://www.mondaq.com/india/it-and-internet/891738/cyber-crimes-under-the-ipc-and-it-act–an-uneasy-co-existence( Last visited on Oct, 5, 2020)

[31]Gagan Harsh Sharma v. The State of Maharashtra in  2019 CriLJ 1398 available at https://www.mondaq.com/india/it-and-internet/891738/cyber-crimes-under-the-ipc-and-it-act–an-uneasy-co-existence(Last visited on Oct, 5, 2020)

[32] Shreya Singhal vs. Union of India.https://www.huffingtonpost.in/pavan-duggal/2015-a-landmark-year-

Click the link for Legal Study Material

Recent Posts
About Happy Healthy Society

Happy Healthy Society is an initiative to improve the Educational, Financial, Physical, Mental & Spiritual health of the society.

Get Started

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

Privacy Settings
We use cookies to enhance your experience while using our website. If you are using our Services via a browser you can restrict, block or remove cookies through your web browser settings. We also use content and scripts from third parties that may use tracking technologies. You can selectively provide your consent below to allow such third party embeds. For complete information about the cookies we use, data we collect and how we process them, please check our Privacy Policy
Youtube
Consent to display content from Youtube
Vimeo
Consent to display content from Vimeo
Google Maps
Consent to display content from Google
Spotify
Consent to display content from Spotify
Sound Cloud
Consent to display content from Sound

Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (0) in /home/happyhea/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5107