United Nations Organization and its organs
The failure of the League of Nations and the destruction of World War II inspired people to seek peace, and the need for an international organization was felt for this peace. As a result, efforts were started from 1941 to form an international organization.
After much deliberation after the end of the war, the United Nations Organization was established on 24 October 1945.
The important events that led to the establishment of the United Nations are given below-
- The Declaration of St. James’s Palace 1941 (12june 1941).
- Atlantic Charter, 1941 (14 August 1941).
- United Nations Declaration 1942 (1 January 1942).
- Moscow Declaration 1943 (October 1943).
- Tehran Declaration 1943 (1 December 1943).
- Dumbarton-Ox Conference, 1944 (7 October 1944).
- San Francisco Conference 1945
The main role in the establishment of the United Nations went to the San Francisco Conference.
The UN declaration was supported by 45 states that were invited to the San Francisco Conference. Poland, which signed the UN declaration, did not attend the conference, as the formation of its new government had not been announced.
The final session of San Francisco was held on June 25, 1945, in which the Charter was passed by one vote, and was signed by all 50 delegates on June 26, 1945. Poland, which had signed the United Nations Declaration, and whose government was announced on 26 June 1945, signed the Charter on 15 October 1945. Thus the charter was signed by 51 states.
There are currently 193 members of the United Nations. On 28 June 2006, the United Nations General Assembly declared Montenegro as the 192nd member. The 193rd member is South Sudan.
The United Nations came into force on October 24, 1945, when the Charter was ratified by 29 signatory states, including the five permanent members of the Security Council.
The Charter of the United Nations is a treaty and a constitutional document of a world organization.
The Preamble of the United Nations Charter declares the basic goals of the United Nations. This goal is-
- 1. To save future generations from the wrath of war.
- 2. Re-expressing allegiance to fundamental freedoms and human rights.
- 3. Establish justice and respect international obligations.
- 4. To promote social progress and standard of living.
The Charter is primarily a multilateral treaty and its binding force is based on the consent of its Parties on the principle of “Pacta Sant Cerveda”.
The Charter uses the term “we the people of the United Nations” to make it clear that the United Nations is a “people’s organization“.
The number of members of the Economic and Social Council has been increased twice by amending the United Nations Charter.
Article 2 of the United Nations Charter sets out seven principles, out of which five are directed at all members of the organization.
The Secretariat, the principal organ of the United Nations, is made up of individuals and not states.
The purpose of the United Nations is to obtain international cooperation to solve international cultural problems, to settle international disputes by peaceful means and to develop friendly relations between nations.
The Trusteeship Council, the main organ of the United Nations, has now become inactive.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations.
Individuals for election as members of the International Court of Justice are nominated by the National Group of Permanent Courts of Arbitration.
Initially, the number of members of the Economic and Social Council was 18.
The International Court of Justice uses equity, justice and pure conscience (ex eco et bono) to settle a dispute with the consent of the parties.
Under Article 42 of the Charter, the Security Council can use armed force against any State. It is the task of the General Assembly to promote the development of international law.
In matters of procedure, the Security Council decides by affirmative votes of nine members.
Important matters are decided by the General Assembly by a two-thirds majority of the members present and voting.
The primary task of maintaining international peace and security is that of the Security Council.
According to Article 2(6) of the United Nations Charter, the Organization shall ensure that States which are not members of the United Nations shall act in so far as is necessary for the maintenance of international peace and security.
In both controversial and advisory proceedings, the Statute of the International Court of Justice empowers states to appoint ad-hoc judges who act as their representatives in suits before the court.
The first woman judge of the International Court of Justice is Roslyn Higgins.
The decision of the International Court of Justice is binding between the parties and in respect of that particular case, and not otherwise.
The number of permanent members of the Security Council can be increased by amending the United Nations Charter.
The International Labor Organization is not a part of the United Nations.
UNICEF deals with child welfare.
The original member strength of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations was 18.
The development of friendly relations between nations is one of the purposes of the United Nations as set forth in Article 1 of the Charter.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is appointed by the General Assembly on the consent of the Security Council.
New dimensions of international law are moving towards individualism.
The budget of the International Court of Justice is approved by the General Assembly.
The Economic and Social Council has the power to set up commissions for the promotion of human rights.
The 18 members of the Economic and Social Council are elected annually by the United Nations General Assembly.
The name of the first High Commissioner for Human Rights of the United Nations is Sadako Ogata.
Only states can be parties to cases before the International Court of Justice.
Chapter 13 of the Charter provides for the Trusteeship Council of the United Nations.
United Nations Organization – International Law