Society

Urbanization Issues & Urban Government

Assist. Proffesor Rekha Khandelwal, Research Scholar, Dept. of Law, Univ. of Rajasthan

Urbanization is today’s burning issue & Challenges for the Urban Government

Introduction:  Today, the urbanization of the whole world is happening at a rapid pace, more than 55 percent of the world’s population now lives in urban regions (United Nations, 2018). India has been among the fastest growing economies of the world in last two decades. Faster growth has obvious implications for the pace and nature of urbanization. Urbanization is an integral part of the process of economic growth. As in most countries, India’s towns and cities make a major contribution to the country’s economy. It indicates an economic growth as well as a very big problem. Along with urbanization, many such problems have arisen. If appropriate measures timely are not taken, the entire human race will have to pay the damages. Like natural calamity, flood, famine, earthquake, volcanic, sea- waves, environmental pollution etc. The result is the same because due to urbanization, natural resources like mountains, dense forests, open plains,. rivers, waterfalls have taken over with, large buildings, industries, factories etc., then natural resources are reduced and secondly the waste from these buildings is put on natural sources. Due to which the people living in the city are getting affected by their health. Only urbanization cannot be considered an economic growth unless the people living in the city get a high quality life, at least to drink pure water, to eat nutritious food and to breathe air and Many problems have also arisen due to urbanization such as unemployment, criminalization, health problems, sanitation and security, due to migration of village people to the city., The pace and growth of urbanization in India poses enormous challenges to urban governance. Urban Governance is derived from the concept of governance in relation to active of how the various constituents of public service delivery are urban areas to be re organized to increase the welfare of citizens (both present and future). There are many issues associated with the governance of urban areas like lack of funds and planning, prolonged public service delivery, waste management, unemployment, unaffordable housing, and service provisions as well as the emergence of newer concerns around climate change, growing insecurity and migration which needs closer understanding. It is necessary that there should be economic growth, but keeping in mind the basic needs of present and future generations, the Economic growth should be made by harmonizing with environment. High quality life of mankind should be given priority. For this, the government should provide all the facilities, employment sector, industries etc. in the rural areas. So that the people of the village do not migrate to the cities and can get a high quality life with employment in the village itself so that urbanization can be stopped and all the problems can be solved all due to urbanization.

Urbanization Due to following reasons

“Industrialization: Commercialization: Social benefits and services: Employment opportunities: Modernization and changes in the mode of living: Rural urban transformation:Disappearance of traditional Sources:”[1]

Challenges due to Urbanization for urban government

“ Housing problems, Overcrowding, Unemployment, Development of slums, Water and sanitation problems, Poor health & diseases, Traffic congestion, Urban crime, Natural calamity, Disappearance of traditional Sources: Need to take some steps by government 1. “Building sustainable and environmentally friendly cities: 2. Provision of essential services: 3. Creation of more jobs: 4. Population control:5. Development of villages:6. “Effective Governance.[2]

                                                                                                                                          Conclusion & Suggestion:

 After analyzing all the above data, it is concluded that urbanization is proving to be a big challenge for the urban government and has become a burning issue today, due to which many problems have arisen. If the proper solution to all these problems is not found, then the solution of some problems will be out of the hands of human beings, its huge compensation has to be paid to the entire human race. Like: Natural disasters, environmental pollution. Due to urbanization, the burden on the people of the city will also have to be resolved properly, keeping in mind the basic needs of the present generation and the coming generation, in order to make proper harmony with the environment, there are some measures which will also lead to economic growth and Urbanization should not be affected too badly. Urbanization should be banned after a limit so that the natural resources of the city are not burdened and the standard of living of the urban people is not affected. All the amenities for which the villagers are migrating to the cities should be made available to them in the village itself. Maximum efforts should be made to develop traditional means of employment in the village, small scale industries, and cottage industries, new Level should be promoted. For the development of small industry, loan facilities etc. should be provided so that the people of the village get satisfaction in the village itself and do not migrate to the city. People of the city should also get high quality life. All the amenities to live should be provided by government in villages, High human quality life should be preferred instead of modernization or economic growth. To increase the steps to create smart cities to villages so as to curb urbanization. All human beings can get basic necessities so that the urban people are satisfied in the city. All the people of the village should be satisfied in the village.

References:

[1] Urbanization available onhttps://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-solutions-(Last visited on Feb. 22,2020)

[2] Urbanization available onhttps://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-solutions-(Last visited on Feb. 22,2020)

Books:

  1. Upadhyaya Dr. J.J. R. (2015) Environmental Law, Central Law Agency.
  2.  Bhargawa, Gopal (2001): “Development of India’s Urban and Regional Planning in 21st Century”, Gian Publishing House, New Delhi.
  3. Bhattacharya, R.N. (2006): “Environmental Economics, An Indian Perspective”, edited by Rabindra N. Bhattacharya, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

Websites:

1. Urbanization available onhttps://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-solutions-(Last visited on Feb. 22, 2020)

2. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/10/the-5-biggest-challenges-cities-will-face-in-the-futureLast visited on Feb.22,2020


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